Dialyzers are frequently referred to as "artificial kidneys." Its purpose is to eliminate extra wastes and fluid from the circulation when the patient's kidneys are unable to. Dialyzers are built of a thin, fibrous material that is used to filter blood.
Dialyzers come in a variety of sizes. These measurements are based on the amount of blood that will pass through them, which is determined by the patient's height and weight. Your renal doctor will recommend the appropriate dialyzer size for you.
The dialyzer is the part of your blood filtering on the hemodialysis machine.
- The dialyzer core consists of thousands of minuscule mesh tubes.
- In every tube, your blood is flowing, and the dialysate stays outside.
- Small pores in tubes allow waste and excess fluid to enter dialysate from your blood.
- Your purified blood will then leave your dialyzer.
Basic Structure of Dialyzer:
A dialyzer consists of a dialysis membrane and a structure that supports it. Four components exist:
- The blood chamber
- Dialysate section
- Semi-permeable dividing membrane
- The support structure of the membrane
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Types of Dialyzer:
There are four main dialyzer types:
1) Hollow fiber dialyzer, It looks like a cylinder full of thousands of small hollow fibers. Blood flows into one end of the dialyser, and through these thousands of tiny hollow fibers. At the same time, dialysate is pumped into the cylinder and through the tiny hollow fibers. This procedure maintains the constant circulation of fresh dialysate.
This is the most frequent form of artificial kidney. The artificial kidney makes use of the countercurrent flow. Countercurrent flow is where the blood flows in one direction and the dialysate flows in the opposite direction. Countercurrent flow is less efficient but seems to be gentler.
2) Parallel plate dialyzer, In the plate dialyser, the semipermeable membrane is arranged in a stack of blood and dialysate sheets running in alternate spaces between the sheets. Blood flows through a more tortuous path—between and around the ends of these sheets than through a hollow-fiber filter.
Some benefits of using this low flux dialyzer are its low blood flow resistance. Because of this, the use of an anti-blood-clotting solution is not as necessary. Another advantage of this dialyzer is that it has a controllable and predictable filtration rate. The next advantage of this dialyzer is that the amount of blood contained in the dialyzer is relatively low. The better the dialyzer, the less blood that comes off the body at a time. The final advantage of the parallel plate dialyzer is that it is cheap.
3) Coil dialyzers are built around a central core, from one or more parts of membrane tubes wound. The tubing is maintained in position by a support screen. Blood passes through the tubes and dialysate passes through the supporting screen. Coil dialyzers are not very common today. Coil dialyzers are highly compliant with the extra resistance and variable UF.
4) kill dialyzer its design was quite simple and many problems came with it. It was wrapped with a cellulose spiral around a mesh drum. The rate of filtration was unpredictable.
A dialyzer has four main parts:
- Blood Compartment: Through the blood compartment the blood flow inside the dialyzer.
- Dialysate Compartment: In this part of the dialyzer, there is a fluid that helps to remove the unwanted waste from your blood. this fluid is called dialysate.
- The Semi-Permeable Membrane Separating Part: It's a thin wall of the membrane. This part permits particles that the body wants to eliminate to flow through, but it prevents vital blood components (such as blood cells) from passing through.
- Membrane Support Structure: To support membranes a plastic stricter is needed so that membranes can work properly.
Working Principle of Dialyzer:
Smaller particles and liquids can flow through the semipermeable barrier formed by the fibres. The dialyzer is enclosed in a sealed plastic cylinder with apertures at the top and bottom that is about a foot long and two to three inches in diameter. Dialysate (dialysis solution) and your blood pass through the dialyzer during therapy (but they never touch). The dialyzer receives fresh dialysate from the machine via one hole and blood through the other. The dialysate filters the wastes out of your blood. Dialysate containing waste products exits the dialyzer and is flushed down the toilet, while clean blood returns to your body.